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Corruption, Drug Trafficking and the Armed Forces Transnational Institute

These forms of state officials’ direct participation constitute the most serious and dangerous corruption cases because the employees involved maintain a dual ability to control and direct their state institutions and the trafficking organization. The officials’ ability to maintain and extend corruption to the rest of the state is much greater. The use of violence against the state and insurgent groups when they come into conflict with drug traffickers’ interests. Again, in Colombia, we can cite the acts committed in the late 1980’s by the Medellin cartel (massacres, mass assassinations, threats, crimes, etc.). It is clear that few solid institutions have been built in the history of Latin America. The commercial monopoly imposed by Spain beginning in the fifteenth century provoked the widespread contraband phenomena.

Although our study takes an initial step toward examining potential ethnic differences in relationship to the neurobiology of SUD, future studies with larger and potentially more diverse samples might continue this important line of inquiry. In the study the females attempting suicide outnumbered males by 1.6 to 1, in accordance with the preceding literature, which reports a higher number of females attempting suicide vs. a higher number of males completing suicide (APA 2003, Gaynes et al. 2004). The age group between 15 to 44 years accounted for 79.2% of the population, which matches previous studies that identify younger age groups with high rates of suicidal attempts (APA 2003, Crosby et al. 1999). The early adulthood (20-39 y/o) is a difficult stage of development characterized by the assumption of major social roles and the evolution of an adult self and life structure, which can be a great source of stress.

© 2022 Abadie, Habecker, Carrasco, Chiou, Fernando, Bennett, Valentin-Acevedo, Dombrowski, West and Wood. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by Universidad Central del Caribe, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, and the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-New Orleans.

Consistent with reports of attenuated MCLS DA responses in individuals with SUD, we found that individuals with SUD have reduced functional connectivity within the MCLS. Similar findings of reduced MCLS connectivity in SUD have been reported elsewhere (Gu et al., 2010; Tomasi et al., 2010; Upadhyay et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2010), although increased MCLS connectivity has also been reported (Ma et al., 2010; Wilcox et al., 2011). Youth at high risk for SUD based on family history may also have disrupted MCLS connectivity with some research suggesting decreased connectivity (Cservenka et al., 2014), and others suggesting increased connectivity (Weiland et al., 2013). Differences in findings (increased vs. decreased connectivity) could reflect heterogeneous effects of chronic vs. acute drug intake, differences in substances of abuse, and/or MRI methodologies (e.g., seed-based vs. independent component analysis; Sutherland et al., 2012). These disparate findings notwithstanding, our data are consistent with prior studies suggesting that altered connectivity within MCLS may represent an important neural correlate of SUD. Respondent-driven sampling is a network-based recruitment and sampling strategy that leverages intragroup social connections to recruit rigorous, weighted samples from hard-to-reach populations (1–3).

puerto rico drug problems

This then subsequently led to a little avalanche of wholly unconnected imagery claiming to show a massive police presence, injured victims and ongoing violence. According to the Puerto Rico Industrial Development Company, the island’s factories make 13 of the world’s top-selling brand-name drugs. This includes 75% of Abbvie’s Humira, the world’s top-selling drug in 2014, while AstraZeneca’s top-selling drug Crestor is made exclusively in Puerto Rico. The FDA has created a hurricane shortages task force to identify potential issues that could lead to drug shortages. “We have broadened the mandate of our emergency operations team to take on the additional task of prioritizing efforts to address the potential for medical product shortages,” Gottlieb said.

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In the legalist view, this points to a «culture of impunity» at the Latin American level that goes beyond the framework of human rights violations and spills into other spheres of social coexistence. These realities call for a thorough diagnosis of the occurrence of illicit relationships and the negative effects they produce in order to propose viable alternatives to prevent state institutions from being infiltrated by corruption in the future. £5 allows us to reach millions of people globally with accurate and reliable resources about HIV prevention and treatment. Some hospitals may ask non-US residents to pay a deposit or ‘good faith’ payment on admittance. You should direct any requests for funds to your travel insurance provider in the first instance; only pay the hospital if you’re advised to do so by your travel insurance company.

  • Finally, increasing the number of seeds might translate into a higher rate of participants’ accrual.
  • In sum, our findings suggest that MCLS connectivity may represent an important neurobiological correlate of SUD not only among selected, non-minority populations, as demonstrated previously, but also in a high-risk, community-based, minority sample.
  • As the recruitment trees illustrate, some of these seeds were extremely productive, boosting enrollment.
  • In participants with and without SUD, the seed-based connectivity maps generated from the left and right NAcc showed connectivity with regions within the MCLS including the medial OFC, midbrain/VTA, parahippocampal gyrus, and amygdala .

The existing relationship between corruption and illegal drug trafficking does not occur exclusively in institutionally weak, drug-producing or trafficking countries. However, 99% of the cocaine supply comes from Andean countries which have forms of government conducive to corruption. Narco-traffickers transport drugs out of isolated jungle valleys for their refinement outside of the country, often under supposed police control.

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  • The second most common precipitant (9.8%) was medical/psychiatric, that includes poor compliance/change of medication, hallucinations, and difficulty coping with medical or psychiatric condition was identified by 13.5% of male patients.
  • These situations affect the whole of life and Puerto Ricans often respond with resignation and silence, an attitude which can also be found in the Church.
  • The interpersonal problems tend to be more common among adolescents and young adults .
  • HIV+ stigma and “enrollment fatigue,” after having been enrolled in numerous studies over time, might also have played a role in the relatively low intake for RDS.
  • Our findings add to the growing literature on MCLS connectivity and SUD in important ways.

Our team met twice a month during the initial recruitment phase, which coincided with the arrival of COVID-19, to assess recruitment numbers and discuss strategies to improve recruitment. One major point of discussion was the effects of COVID-19 on patient recruitment. In March 2020, stay-at-home orders were issued by the governor of Puerto Rico, effectively shutting down most economic activity. Medically assisted treatment , which had been a source of recruitment for PWID in the past, shifted to telemedicine or a reduced-visit schedule. A significant proportion of our population was homeless or transient and was dispersed given the measures adopted.

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In general, beginning in July 1990, the government has carried out an efficient fight against the Shining Path and MRTA . It has also fought against hyper-inflation and has attempted to create conditions conducive to general economic and political stability. This allowed ruling party victories in political and municipal elections. The public began to accept, with diminishing resignation, the huge social and economic costs of structural adjustments as well as the political costs of true institutional strengthening advocated by the Fujimori administration in recent years. State officials also directly participate in trafficking by entering the circuit and selling drugs confiscated by the authorities, such as the Peruvian Executive Office of Drug Control, OFECOD, according to the findings of a congressional investigative commission in 1991.

At all of these stages, drug rings seek to eliminate economic and political obstacles to permit their business’ optimal economic output. In our 35th year we’re asking people to donate £35 – that’s just £1 for every year we’ve been providing life-changing information. Any donation you make helps us continue our work towards a world where HIV is no longer a threat to health or happiness.

The resale of these drugs is a form of disloyal competition, unacceptable to the trafficking groups, and is looked down upon within the criminal logic of drugs. Ii.- Similarly, representative groups such as artists, athletes, or other public figures can help the drug traffickers and figureheads enter into the country’s social life. Medical facilities in American Samoa are basic and medical evacuation by air ambulance to Hawaii, New Zealand or Australia may be necessary. Make sure you have adequate travel health insurance and accessible funds to cover the cost of any medical treatment abroad and repatriation.

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Findings might be transferable to other studies involving marginalized populations such as men that have sex with men , sexual workers, homeless, or undocumented migrants. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at the [University of Nebraska and the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-New Orleans]. Participants provided written consent at the study office before enrollment in the study and were compensated for their time and travel expenses.

  • Forced to isolate, study participants initially withdrew from their normal routines and peer networks, affecting RDS recruitment.
  • In March 2020, stay-at-home orders were issued by the governor of Puerto Rico, effectively shutting down most economic activity.
  • This study is based on three particular populations, HIV+ PWID, HIV- PWID, and HIV+ living in the metropolitan area of San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Puerto Ricans, the second largest Latino subgroup in the US, have the highest rates of SUD among all US Latino subgroups (Alegria et al., 2006, 2007; Caetano et al., 2009). However, MCLS connectivity in Puerto Rican eco sober house review individuals with SUD has not been studied and it has scarcely been examined in Latinos in general. Findings show that recruitment through peer networks using RDS was possible across all subgroups during COVID-19.

More than half of the HIV+ (59%) group was unemployed, with almost seven in 10 participants among the PWID groups currently unemployed. HIV- PWID experienced the highest level of past and current homelessness, with almost two-thirds (64%) having experienced homelessness in the past 12 months and a little over a third (36%) declaring current homelessness. Finally, all groups exhibited a high prevalence of self-reported past HCV infection with one in four (26%) in the HIV+ group showing the lowest HCV prevalence. Almost all PWID and HIV+ (93%) self-reported a previous positive test for HCV, while more than half (62%) among PWID and HIV- producing a positive HCV test result.

Thus, it is crucial to inquire into the exact magnitude, methods and situations of the upper echelons of state power in these criminal organizations, as well as their powerful presence through corruption in distinct levels of government. As a result, it is necessary to analyze the benefits offered by both sectors, drug traffickers and state institutions, which facilitate acts of corruption when they interact. This retrospective study examines the demographic, psychosocial and psychiatric profiles of suicide attempters seen in the general emergency room of a regional hospital affiliated to a university. In addition to contribute with more information about the suicide attempters, this information may improve suicide risk evaluation and guide future research on suicide assessment and prevention.

For students, the current economic crisis has also caused them to question their motives for studying and has led many of them to hopelessness and a lack of direction. HIV+ stigma and “enrollment fatigue,” after having been enrolled in numerous studies over time, might also have played a role in the relatively low intake for RDS. In addition, social-distancing requirements change the way people who are HIV+ receive health care and other forms of social support , limiting clinic visits and reducing the opportunities for social interactions with other patients in their social networks.

This is especially true in the current climate of «structural adjustment» and «stabilization» programs, where governments impose austerity and sacrifice on the population. Puerto Rico is a beautiful island in the Caribbean and about 97% of its population would call themselves Christians. Yet it is also a country that suffers much violence, alcoholism, drug-addiction, mental illness and corruption. These situations affect the whole of life and Puerto Ricans often respond with resignation and silence, an attitude which can also be found in the Church.

Participation was entirely voluntary, and study participants could withdraw at any time. A major barrier to research on interactions between HIV, injection drug use, and the human microbiome is the need to recruit people who are engaged in illegal activity and have a disease that is stigmatized . Specifically, cross-grouping comparisons require a subsample of PWID and who are HIV+, those who are HIV+ but are not PWID, those who are HIV- and are PWID, and those https://soberhome.net/ who are HIV- and are not PWID. Three of the groups pose a considerable recruitment challenge, requiring careful selection of recruitment location and technique, especially with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Apologising to his family, sponsors, fellow players, the tour and fans, Garrigus – who has battled substance abuse problems previously – said that he planned to use the time away from golf to “be with my family and work on regaining my sobriety”.

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